List of Scientific Instruments and their Inventors


ExamInsights aims to help aspirants to score good marks in government exam and secure a high rank in SSC, Railway, Bank etc. ExamInsight has listed all the important scientific instrument name along with their inventor and uses it will help the student to easily answer question-related to a scientific instrument.

Scientific InstrumentsInventorsUses
AltimeterLouis Paul CailletetAn instrument used in aircraft for measuring altitudes
AmmeterFriedrich DrexlerMeasures electric current
AnemometerLeon Battista AlbertiUsed to measure the speed, direction, and pressure of the wind.
AudiometerGeorg von BékésyMeasures intensity of sound
BarographFrenchman Lucien VidiContinuous recording of atmospheric pressure
BarometerEvangelista TorricelliMeasures atmospheric pressure and conditions.
BinocularsJ. P. LemiereAn optical instrument used for a magnified view of distant objects.
BolometerSamuel Pierpont LangleyMeasures infra-red (Heat) radiation.
CalipersPierre VernierMeasures diameters of thin cylinder/wire.
CalorimeterAntoine Lavoisier and Pierre-SimonMeasures quantity of heat
CarburetorSamuel MoreyUsed for charging the air with petrol vapors in an internal combustion engine.
Cardiogram(ECG)Willem EinthovenTraces movements of the heart, recorded on a Cardiograph
CathetometerP. Dulong and A. PetitDetermines heights and levels
ChronometerJohn HarrisonDetermines longitude of a vessel at sea.
CinematographAuguste LumièreUsed for projecting pictures on the screen.
ColorimeterJohn T. StockCompares intensity of colors
CommutatorWilliam SturgeonUsed in generators to reverse the direction of electric current.
CrescographJagadish Chandra BoseUsed for measuring growth in plants.
CryometerMeasurement of low temperature.
CyclotronErnest LawrenceUsed for accelerating charged particles in the microwave oscillator
DilatometerAbbe and FizeauMeasures change in volume of substances
DynamoMichael FaradayConvert’s mechanical energy into electrical energy
ElectrometerWilliam Snow HarrisMeasures very small but potential difference in electric currents
ElectroscopeWilliam GilbertDetects presence of an electric Charge
Electron microscopeMax Knoll and Ernst RuskaUsed to obtain a magnifying view of very small objects (20,000 times).
EndoscopeBozziniTo examine the internal parts of the body
FathometerHerbert Grove DorseyMeasures depth of the ocean
FluxmeterMuller MartinMeasures magnetic flux
GalvanometerJohann SchweiggerMeasures electric current
GramophoneÉdouard-Léon Scott de MartinvilleUsed to reproduce recorded sound.
HydrometerWilliam NicholsonMeasures the relative density of liquids
HydrophoneReginald FessendenMeasure sound under water
HygrometerHorace Bénédict de SaussureUsed to measure the moisture content or the humidity of air or any gas.
HygroscopeRobert HookeShows the changes in atmospheric humidity
HypsometerWayne R NormanDetermines boiling point of liquids.
LactometerMr. DicasMeasures the relative density of milk.
MachmeterAngst WalterDetermines the speed of an aircraft relative to the speed of sound
ManometerEvangelista TorricelliUsed to measure atmospheric pressure
MicrometerWilliam GascoigneCoverts sound waves into electrical vibration
MicrophoneEmile BerlinerConverts sound waves into electrical signals.
MicroscopeZacharias JanssenUsed to obtain a magnified view of small objects
NephelometerTheodore William RichardsMeasures the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquid
OdometerBenjamin FranklinAn instrument attached to the wheel of a vehicle, to measure the distance traveled.
OhmmeterOsvold Robert HaroldMeasures electrical resistance of objects
high-frequencyThomas SaveryMeasures the frequency of electromagnetic waves(radio waves)
OptometerDr. Jules BadalUsed for testing the refractive power of the eye.
OtoscopeE. SeigleUsed for visual examination of the eardrum.
PeriscopeHippolyte Marié-DavyUsed to view objects above sea level (Used in submarines).
PhonographThomas EdisonUsed for reproducing sound.
PhotometerDmitry LachinovCompares the luminous intensity of the two sources of light
PolygraphWilliam Moulton MarstonIt simultaneously records changed in physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood pressure & the respiration (used as a lie detector)
PyrheliometerC. G. ABBOTTUsed for measuring Solar radiation.
PyrometerJosiah WedgwoodMeasures very high temperature.
QuadrantJohn HadleyMeasures altitudes and angles in navigation and astronomy
RadarHeinrich HertzRadio, Detection, and Ranging.
Rain GaugeKing SejongMeasures Rainfall.
RefractometerCarl ZeissMeasures a Refractive Index of a substance.
SeismographJohn MilneUsed for recording the intensity and origin of earthquakes shocks.
SpectroscopeRobert Wilhelm BunsenUsed for Spectrum analysis.
SpeedometerCroatian Josip BelušićAn instrument used for measuring the speed of the vehicle.
SpherometerRobert-Aglaé CauchoixMeasures curvature of spherical objects.
SphygmomanometerSamuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von BaschMeasures blood pressure.
StethoscopeRené LaennecUsed for hearing and analyzing the sound of Heart.
TachometerJames W. AllenTo determine speed, especially the rotational speed of a shaft(rpm)
Tangent galvanometerAndré-Marie AmpèreMeasure the amount of direct current(DC)
TelemeterC. MichalkeRecords physical happenings at a distant place(space)
TelescopeHans LippersheyUsed for a magnified view of distant objects.
ThermometerGalileo GalileiMeasures Temperature
ThermostatWarren S. JohnsonAutomatically regulates temperatures at a constant point.
TonometerJohn AustinMeasures the pitch of a sound
TransformerOttó BláthyAn apparatus used for converting high voltage to low and vice-versa without a change in its frequency.
TransponderCharles M RedmanTo receive a signal and transmit a reply immediately in satellites.
VenturimeterClemens HerschelMeasures the rate of flow of liquids
VernierPierre VernierMeasures Small sub-division of scale.
ViscometerEdward H ZeitfuchsMeasures Viscosity of liquid.
VoltmeterAndrew KayUsed to measure the electric potential difference between two points
WattmeterOttó BláthyTo measure electric power
WavemeterPaul D ZottuTo measure the wavelength of a radio wave(high-frequency waves)

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